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How BEV fleets can be impacted by better powertrain sizing

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Our IMechE paper assesses the cost and efficiency impact of powertrain sizing for BEV fleets used in MaaS operations.

We are proud to reveal our research on the impact of powertrain sizing for (Battery Electric Vehicle) BEV fleets of autonomous Mobility as a Service (MaaS) passenger cars.

The paper shows the relationship between time and energy across a range of real-life drive cycles.  Modelling real journeys from A to B demonstrates that significant energy savings are realised without impacting the time taken.  This is key to the total cost of ownership (TCO) of autonomous MaaS fleets.  The work highlights the importance of not over specifying the powertrain in future autonomous fleets.  The opportunity is there for lighter, cheaper and more sustainable vehicles supported by a strong business case.

Additionally, our conclusions show quantitatively that it is important to also consider the entire BEV fleet in sizing the powertrain. For many operational use cases, optimising battery pack sizing to minimise the size of the MaaS BEV fleets has more impact on overall operating costs than optimising for individual BEVs.

Througout the paper extensive simulations were undertaken. First we created a baseline vehicle model and matched it against real performance, energy consumption and charging data. Next we used distance based simulation which allowed the baseline vehicle to drive along a wide range of real world drive cycles. Through this approach, we assessed a variety of powertrain sizes. These included assessing a range of motor sizes and battery pack capacities.

Our Technical Director James presented insights from our paper titled ‘The cost & efficiency impact of powertrain sizing for passenger cars‘ at the Institution of Mechanical Engineer’s ‘Powertrain Systems for a Sustainable Future Conference 2023‘ on the 29th – 30th November 2023. For more infomation on the conference visit

If you would like to learn more about the paper or for a copy, please contact our Technical Director James (

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